- ISBN 10: 0444595570
- Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
- Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics by Yasar Demirel (ebook)
- Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
He is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Thermodynamics. Demirel authored and co-authored three books, four book chapters, and research papers. The first edition of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics was published in After it was expanded to a graduate textbook, the third edition was published in He has obtained several awards and scholarships, and presented invited seminars.
His research field concerns modelling and simulation in process system engineering with a special focus on bridging molecular scales to macro and mega scales systems. Gerbaud co-authored 6 book chapters, 80 research papers and his work led to 6 specialized software. He has contributed to promote innovative teaching and learning in engineering classes based on activities of e-learning, writing reflective portfolio and designing mind maps among others tools. Show More Table of Contents 1. Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics 2.
Transport and rate processes 3. Fundamentals of nonequilibrium thermodynamics 4. Using the second law: thermodynamic analysis 5. Thermoeconomics 6. Diffusion 7. Heat and mass transfer 8. Chemical reactions 9. Coupled systems of chemical reactions and transport processes Membrane transport Thermodynamics and biological systems Stability analysis Organized structures Nonequilibrium thermodynamics approaches Probabilistic approach in thermodynamics.
See All Customer Reviews. Shop Textbooks. Read an excerpt of this book! In the second chapter, the transport and rate processes have been summarized. The rest of the book covers the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, dissipation function and various applications based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics is briefly covered. All the parts of the book can be used in senior and graduate teaching in engineering and science. All through this book, the work of many people who contributed to both theory and the applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics has been visited and revisited. All those whose work has contributed in preparing this book are acknowledged, and greatly appreciated. Demirel, Table of Contents Preface 1 Equilibrium thermodynamics 1 2 Transport and rate processes 24 3 Linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics 59 4 Balance equations and entropy generation 84 5 Entropy and exergy 6 Using the second law of thermodynamics 7 Thermoeconomics 8 Diffusion 9 Heat and mass transfer 10 Chemical reactions 11 Membrane transport 12 Thermodynamics and biological systems 13 Other thermodynamic approaches 14 Extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics Appendix Symbols Index Chapter 1 Equilibrium Thermodynamics 1.
Energy can cause a physical and chemical change. A process takes place in a system, which is formed by a geometrical volume of macroscopic dimensions subjected to controlled experimental conditions. A system contains a substance, which has a large amount of molecules. The properties of a system depend on the behavior of these molecules called the microscopic state, which is the main concern of statistical thermodynamics.
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On the other hand Classical thermodynamics is concerned with the macroscopic state, which is the average behavior of large group of molecules such as temperature or pressure. Part of the physical universe with a specified boundary for observation is a thermodynamic system. An ideal thermodynamic system is a model system with simplifications to represent a real system that can be described by the theoretical thermodynamics approach; a simple thermodynamic system is a single state system wit no internal boundaries, and is not acted upon by external force fields or inertial forces.
ISBN 10: 0444595570
A composite system, however, has at least two simple systems separated by a barrier restrictive to one form of energy or matter. Boundary of the volume separates the system from its surroundings. Through the boundary of an open system energy and matter can be exchanged between the system and its surroundings. The isolated systems cannot exchange energy and matter, while the closed systems exchange only energy with the surroundings.
In a closed system, mass changes only due to the chemical reaction. Adiabatic systems are surrounded by walls, which prevent the exchange of matter and thermal energy. A system and its surrounding are considered the universe.
Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
If a thermodynamic variable is a state function, its change is independent of the path between the initial and final states, and depends on only the properties of initial and final states of the system. Infinitesimal change of a state function is an exact differential. Properties like mass m and volume V are defined by the system as a whole.
Such properties are additive, and are called the extensive properties. Separation of the total change for a component into the external and internal parts may be generalized to any extensive property. All extensive properties are homogeneous functions of the first order in the mass of the system. For example, doubling the mass of a system at constant composition doubles the internal energy.
The pressure P and temperature T define the values at each point of the system and are therefore called the intensive properties, which can be expressed as derivatives of extensive properties, such as the temperature T Energy may be transferred in the forms of heat or work through the boundary of a system. A mechanical work of expansion or compression proceeds with the observable motion of the coordinates of the particles of matter. Chemical work, on the other hand, proceeds with changes in internal energy due to changes in the chemical composition mass action.
Potential energy is a capacity for mechanical work related to position of a body, while the kinetic energy is the capacity for mechanical work related to motion of a body. Potential and kinetic energies are external, while the sensible heat and latent heat are internal energies.
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics by Yasar Demirel (ebook)
Conservation of mass in an open system states that the change in the total mass is equal to the mass exchanged with the surroundings. During a process, energy can be transferred and converted fi-om one form to another, while the total energy remains constant. This is known as the conservation of energy principle. Reversible process refers to macroscopic processes that occur while the system remains near equilibrium.
The process is called reversible because it can be reversed at any stage by a slight change in external parameter. In a reversible process, it would be possible to perform a second process in at least one way to restore the system and of its environment to their respective original states, except for differential changes higher than the first order.
A reversible process proceeds with infinitesimal driving forces e. Hence for a Reversible and irreversible processes 3 linear transport system, reversible change occurs slowly on the scale of macroscopic relaxation times, and dissipative effects must not be present. Time appears only through its arithmetic value in the equations for reversible processes. For a simple reversible reaction, if one path is preferred for the backward reaction, the same path must also be preferred for the reverse reaction.
This is called the principle of microscopic reversibility. Time can be measured by reversible, periodic phenomena, such as the oscillations of a pendulum. However, the direction of time cannot be determined by such phenomena; it is related to the unidirectional increase of entropy in all natural processes. Some ideal processes may be reversible and proceed in the forward and backward directions.
In Eq. Irreversibility is a consequence of coUisional dynamics in which transfer of mass, energy, and momentum take place. As a typical example of irreversibility, hydrodynamics specifies a number of nonequilibrium states by the mass density, velocity, and energy density of the fluid. The hydrodynamic equations then comprise a wide range of relaxation processes, such as heat flow, diffusion or viscous dissipation, which are all known as the irreversible changes. All natural processes proceed, or decay toward an equilibrium state; they can be expressed by phenomenological relations, such as Fourier's law of heat conduction, and dissipate their driving power.
The term irreversibilty has two different uses and has been applied to different 'arrows of time'. These arrows are not interrelated, however they seem to be connected to intuitive notion of causality.
Mostly the word irreversibility refers to the direction of time evolution of a system. Irreversibility is also used to describe non-invariance of the changes with respect to the nonlinear time reversal transformation.
Another arrow of time of classical physics is the radiation arrow. The phenomenological approach favoring the retarded potential over the solution of the Maxwell field equation is called the time arrow of radiation. These two arrows of time lead to Einstein-Ritz controversy: Einstein believed that irreversibility is based on probability consideration, while Ritz believed that an initial condition and thus causality is the basis of irreversibility.
Causality and probability may be two aspects of the same principle since the arrow of time has a global nature .